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ADC loans are a component of commercial real estate loans that provide funding for acquiring and developing land for future construction and interim financing for residential or commercial structures.
A valuation reserve established and maintained by charges against the bank’s operating income. As a valuation reserve, it is an estimate of uncollectible amounts that is used to reduce the book value of loans and leases to the amount that is expected to be collected. The reserve must be sufficient to absorb probable losses inherent in the institution’s loan and lease portfolio.
Reports of Condition and Income are commonly known as Call Reports. Every state member bank is required to file a consolidated Call Report normally as of the close of business on the last calendar day of each calendar quarter, i.e., the report date.
Loans that exhibit well-defined weaknesses and a distinct possibility of loss. Classified assets are divided into more specific subcategories ranging from least to most severe: substandard, doubtful, and loss. An asset classified as substandard is inadequately protected by the current sound worth and paying capacity of the obligor or of the collateral pledged, if any. An asset classified as doubtful has all the weaknesses inherent in one classified as substandard, with the added characteristic that the weaknesses make full collection or liquidation highly questionable and improbable. An asset classified as loss is considered uncollectible and of such little value that its continuance as a bankable asset is not warranted.
Land development and construction loans (including one- to four-family residential and commercial construction loans) and other land loans. CRE loans also include loans secured by multifamily property and nonfarm, nonresidential property where the primary source of repayment is derived from rental income associated with the property or the proceeds of the sale, refinancing, or permanent financing of the property.
A significant amount of direct or indirect extensions of credit and contingent obligations that possess similar risk characteristics. Typically, loans to related groups of borrowers, loans collateralized by a single security or securities with common characteristics, and loans to borrowers with common characteristics within an industry have been included in homogeneous risk groupings when assessing asset concentrations.
The Board has a broad range of enforcement powers that include formal or informal enforcement actions that may be taken, typically after the completion of an onsite bank examination. Formal enforcement actions consist of written agreements, temporary cease-and-desist orders, cease-and-desist orders, prohibition and removal orders, and PCA directives; informal enforcement actions include commitment letters, board resolutions, and memorandums of understanding.
The ability to accommodate decreases in liabilities and to fund increases in assets. A bank has adequate liquidity when it can obtain sufficient funds, either by increasing liabilities or converting assets, promptly and at a reasonable cost.
Nonaccrual status means loans with overdue interest payments and uncertainty regarding collection of principal; no interest income is recognized on these loans for reporting purposes.
Funding that can be very sensitive to changes in interest rates, such as brokered deposits, certificates of deposit greater than $100,000, federal funds purchased, and borrowed money.
Real estate acquired by a lender through foreclosure in satisfaction of a debt. A loan secured by foreclosed real estate is counted as a nonperforming loan in reporting loan quality in Call Reports to bank supervisory agencies.
A framework of supervisory actions, set forth in title 12, section 1831o, of the United States Code, for insured depository institutions whose capital positions have declined below certain threshold levels. It was intended to ensure that when an institution becomes financially troubled, action is taken to resolve the problems of the institution and incur the least possible long-term loss to the DIF. The capital categories are well capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized, and critically undercapitalized.
Supervision and Regulation Letters are issued by the Board’s Division of Banking Supervision and Regulation. They address significant policy and procedural matters of continuing relevance to the Board’s supervisory effort. Supervision and Regulation Letters are for distribution to supervised institutions as well as Reserve Banks.
The sum of core capital elements (common equity, including capital stock, surplus, and undivided profits; qualifying noncumulative perpetual preferred stock; and minority interest in the equity accounts of consolidated subsidiaries) less any amounts of goodwill, other intangible assets, interest-only strips receivables and nonfinancial equity investments that are required to be deducted, and unrealized holding losses in the available-for-sale equity portfolio, as well as any investments in subsidiaries that the Federal Reserve determines should be deducted from tier 1 capital. Tier 1 capital elements represent the highest form of capital, namely, permanent equity.
Detailed credit analysis preceding the granting of a loan, based on credit information furnished by the borrower, such as employment history, salary, and financial statements; publicly available information, such as the borrower’s credit history; and the lender’s evaluation of the borrower’s credit needs and ability to pay.
A formal supervisory enforcement action that is generally issued when a financial or an institution-affiliated party has multiple deficiencies that are serious enough to warrant formal action or that have not been corrected under an informal action. It is an agreement between a financial institution and the Board or a Reserve Bank that may require the financial institution or the institution-affiliated party to (1) stop engaging in specific practices or violations or (2) take action to correct any resulting conditions. The agreement may also require the financial institution to provide ongoing information, such as progress reports. This enforcement action is the least severe of the formal enforcement actions.